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Congenital Anomaly of Uterus

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Gynaecology (Congenital Anomaly of Uterus)
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Congenital Uterus Treatment in Coimbatore

Congenital anomalies of the uterus are the congenital malformations in the uterus that develop during embryonic life. A uterine anomaly is when a woman’s uterus develops differently when in the womb. Less than 5% of women have congenital anomalies of the uterus, however, it has been observed that 25% of women who experienced miscarriage or preterm delivery have a congenital uterine anomaly.

Why does a congenital anomaly of the uterus occur?

Normally, the development of the female reproductive tract i.e. oviduct, uterus, cervix and upper vagina occurs from the Mullerian ducts. These are a pair of organs found in the female foetus when she is in her mother’s womb. From each of the Mullerian ducts, one fallopian tube and half of the uterus develop. These go on to fuse later on and form one organ with paired fallopian tubes. When this procedure doesn’t occur normally, defects and anomalies form in the uterus.

Types of congenital uterine anomalies

There are various types of congenital uterine anomalies, including –

The most common congenital uterine anomalies are septate and bicornuate uterine anomalies.

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Symptoms

Typically, there are no symptoms of congenital uterine anomalies. Most women don’t discover that they have a congenital uterine anomaly until they get their first prenatal ultrasound or diagnosis of infertility. In case when symptoms do appear, these include:

Causes

In most cases of congenital uterine anomalies, the cause is unknown. More than 90% of women with uterine anomalies have a normal number of chromosomes. However, between 1938 and 1971, to prevent miscarriages and premature deliveries, some pregnant women were treated with DES (diethylstilbestrol). It was observed that these women were at an increased risk of having a congenital uterine anomaly. Other than this, there haven’t been any well-established risk factors, as of now.

About 6.7% of the general population have congenital uterine malformations. However, its prevalence is higher in women with infertility problems and even higher in women who have a history of recurrent miscarriages. Due to uterine anomalies, there is a negative effect on a woman’s ability to carry out their pregnancy to full term. About 1 in 4 women who have had miscarriages or preterm births have uterine malformations.

Diagnosis

Congenital uterine anomalies can be recognized at the onset of a girl’s puberty, when menstruation begins, or when it fails to begin. Congenital anomalies of the uterus can also be diagnosed when a woman has infertility problems or trouble sustaining her pregnancy. For an accurate diagnosis and Bicornuate / Septate Uterus Treatment in Coimbatore, a combination of tests may be performed. These tests include complete medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as a 3D ultrasound, hysterosalpingogram, and MRI.

Treatment

Congenital uterine anomalies can only be treated with surgery. However, some women don’t require any treatment if the anomaly doesn’t interfere with their pregnancy. In most cases, women with a congenital anomaly of the uterus don’t experience any reproductive or medical problems. For those that require surgery, the type of surgery that is done depends on the type of congenital anomaly of the uterus.

In the case of a unicornuate, bicornate, or didelphic uterus, usually, surgery isn’t recommended. Surgery to treat the septate uterus is only recommended if a woman faces reproductive issues. It can be corrected by removing the septum surgically. This improves the chances of a positive pregnancy outcome. Surgery to treat a congenital uterine anomaly can repair the defect, and thereby eliminate discomfort during periods or sexual intercourse. It can also improve fertility as well as pregnancy outcomes. If a woman with a congenital anomaly of the uterus is having trouble achieving pregnancy within six months of trying, she should see a fertility specialist.

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