Treatments & Procedures
Mechanical Ventilation is a form of artificial respiration that uses ventilator, which is a breathing machine, to assist the patients with their breathing. It is used when the lungs are not functioning properly. This breathing support helps in getting enough oxygen to the body and also helps in the removal of carbon-di-oxide from the body. Mechanical ventilation is used in the ICU when patients are not strong enough to breathe on their own and so they take complete support of the machine, ventilator. Doctors take extreme care to prevent the patient from developing infections in the lung, especially pneumonia.
Mechanical ventilation involves the penetration of an instrument through the mouth or the skin. There are two main modes of mechanical ventilation and they are positive pressure ventilation, where air is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is sucked into the lungs.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a test that is commonly performed to check the electrical activity of the heart. An ECG shows the heart’s electrical activity by tracing lines on a paper. These tracings which have spikes and dips are called as waves.
An ECG is performed to find the cause of unexplained chest pain. This could be caused by a heart attack. It also helps in finding the cause for the symptoms of the heart disease. The symptoms include shortness of breath, dizziness, and palpitations. The other uses of ECG are to find out the thickness of the walls of the heart, to check if the medicines used to treat the heart are working properly and also to check the health condition of the heart when other diseases are present.
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Arterial line is a catheter that is inserted into an artery, as is the case for IVs. They may be inserted into the wrist or groin. The arterial line is a way to constantly monitor and measure the blood pressure of the patient. This constant monitoring of the blood pressure is essential to treat the patient safely. Arterial line can be used in patients with very high or low blood pressures. It also provides access to frequent blood sampling, as the blood can be withdrawn from the patient with the help of the catheter.
An arterial line is mostly inserted in the radial artery of the wrist or brachial artery at the elbow. Insertion is usually painful and so this procedure is performed under local anaesthesia. Arterial lines are typically inserted by physicians, surgeons, anaesthesiologists or nurses.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the combination of life saving measures performed to restart lung and heart function in a patient who has stopped breathing or whose heart has stopped beating. This condition is called as cardiac arrest. A few methods may include applying pressure on the chest attempting to restore the heart rhythm to normal (with an electric shock) and also administration of medications and artificial respiration using a face mask or breathing tube.
When the heart stops, the lack of oxygenated blood can cause brain damage. In this condition a person may die within 5-10 minutes. CPR can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until any other medical treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm.